MODULE 1: SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NEW MATERIALS

Coordinator: Institute of Physical Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

* Please contact inframat@ipc.bas.bg for the selected service!

Chemical analysis

Type of analysis:

  • determination of the content of macro- and microelements in different types of samples – environmental, metallurgical, soils, galvanic solutions, food, beverages, biological samples;
  • development of analytical forms for determining the forms of chemical elements.

Sample type:

Liquids, solids.

Institution and contact:

IGIC – BAS Assoc. Prof. Albena Detcheva-Tchakarova, PhD

albena@svr.igic.bas.bg, +35929792504

Assoc. Prof. Stefka Tepavitcharova, PhD

stepav@svr.igic.bas.bg, +35929793926

SU – FCP Assistant Prof. Elisaveta Mladenova, PhD

elimladenova@chem.uni-sofia.bg, +35928161356

Assistant Prof. Tsvetomil Voislavov

voyslavov@abv.bg, +35928161277

Type of analysis:

  • qualitative and quantitative non-destructive analysis of materials composed of chemical elements with atomic numbers between Ca (20) and U (92);
  • measurement of thicknesses and percentage composition of layers in single-layer and multilayer metal coatings.

Sample type:

Liquid, solid and powdered materials, metal coatings over different substrates.

Non-destructive method of analysis.

Institution and contact:

IPC – BAS Prof.Ivan Krastev, PhD
krastev@ipc.bas.bg, +35929 792 574

Type of analysis:

  • identification of unknown substances;
  • determination of the isotopic content of the elements;
  • determining the structure of substances;
  • qualitative and quantitative analysis of organic and inorganic substances – products of organic synthesis, pharmaceutical substances, natural products;
  • separation and identification of components and analysis of the composition of complex mixtures;
  • development and validation of methods for qualitative and quantitative analysis.

Sample type:

Gases, liquids, solid samples.

Institution and contact:

IP – BAS Eng. Pencho Tuleshkov, PhD
pen.tul@polymer.bas.bg, +35929 793 477
IOCCP – BAS Assoc. Prof. Svilen Simeonov, PhD
svilen@orgchm.bas.bg, +35929 606 114
IC-BAS Diana Filkova, PhD
dfilkova@ic.bas.bg, +35929 792 550
SU – FCP Assoc. Prof.  Hristo Chanev, PhD
ohhc@chem.uni-sofia.bg, +35928 161 249
Assistant Prof. Stela Georgieva, PhD
ohsg@chem.uni-sofia.bg, +35928 161 365
SU – FH Assoc. Prof. Valentina Lubomirova, PhD
vlah@chem.uni-sofia.bg, +35928 161 243,-298

Type of analysis:

  • chemical elemental analysis;
  • weight percentage or atomic distribution of chemical elements;
  • chemical element mapping;
  • combined with scanning or transmission electron microscopy

Sample type:

Solids.

Institution and contact:

IPC – BAS Assoc. Prof. Bogdan Rangelov, PhD
rangelov@ipc.bas.bg, +35929 792 533, -3561
SU – FCP Luben Mihailov, PhD
nhtlm@mail.chem.uni-sofia.bg, +359888 960 858

Spectroscopic methods

Type of analysis:

  • determination of molecular structure;
  • qualitative and quantitative analysis of organic synthesis products, pharmaceuticals, natural products;
  • qualitative and quantitative composition of mixtures of synthetic and / or natural substances;
  • structure and particle sizes in colloidal solutions of surfactants, polymers, etc .;
  • molecular dynamics and interactions, kinetics of chemical reactions and molecular transformations, molecular diffusion;
  • analysis of the origin, authenticity and quality of food and beverages (honey, wine, etc.);
  • structure and composition of organic and inorganic substances in solid phase, mesoporous silicates, zeolites, polymeric materials, etc.

Non-destructive method of analysis.

Sample type:

Liquid and solid (powders) samples, micro-heterogenic materials, gels, liquid-crystal samples.

Institute and contact person:

IOCCP – BAS Prof. Pavleta Shestakova, PhD
psd@orgchm.bas.bg, +35929 606 136
SU – FCP Prof. Rositsa Nikolova, PhD
rnikolova@chem.uni-sofia.bg, +35928161392
Nevena Petkova-Yankova, PhD
nipetkova@chem.uni-sofia.bg, +35928 161 249
Nikola Burdzhiev, PhD
nburdzhiev@chem.uni-sofia.bg, +35928 161 225

Type of analysis:

  • identification and determination of the valence state and local structure of paramagnetic ions in electrode materials, sensors, catalysts, building materials, pharmaceuticals, mineralogical samples;
  • detection, characterization and quantitative analysis of free radicals in irradiated organic and inorganic substances, food and beverages;
  • analysis of products and materials with structural defects such as semiconductors, dielectrics, polymers, luminescent materials, minerals;
  • qualitative and quantitative analysis of archaeological artifacts such as plasters, pottery, ceramics, glass;
  • kinetics of catalytic and polymer reactions under the action of various stimuli (temperature, light in the visible and ultraviolet range);
  • analysis and determination of the local structure of drugs and pharmaceutical samples;
  • differentiation of non-graphitized and graphitized carbon materials.

Non-destructive method of analysis.

Sample type:

Solid and liquid samples.

Institute and contact person:

IC – BAS Assist. Prof. Ralitsa Mladenova, PhD
ralitsa@ic.bas.bg, +359297 923 591
IGIC – BAS Rositsa Kukeva
rositsakukeva@yahoo.com, +35929 793 574

Type of analysis:

  • qualitative and quantitative analysis of inorganic and organic substances, mono- and multi-component systems;
  • applies to archaeological specimens, icons, paintings, murals, printed circuit boards, natural products, food additives, oils, fuels, dyes, construction and polymer materials used in industry, etc.

Sample type:

Solid and liquid samples.

Institute and contact person:

IC – BAS
IGIC – BAS
Assoc. Prof. Maya Shopska
shopska@ic.bas.bg, +35929 793 918
Assoc. Prof. Kristina Chakarova
kristina@svr.igic.bas.bg,
+35929 792 556, +35929 792 573
Hristina Tsvetkova, PhD
hrisi@svr.igic.bas.bg, +35929 793 570
Assoc. Prof. Nikola Drenchev
ndrenchev@svr.igic.bas.bg,
+35929 792 556, +35929 792 573
IP – BAS Prof. Ivailo Dimitrov, PhD
dimitrov@polymer.bas.bg, +35929 793 628
Assoc. Prof. Olya Stoilova, PhD
stoilova@polymer.bas.bg, +35929 793 468
IOCCP – BAS Assoc. Prof. Bistra Stanboliiska, PhD
bs@orgchm.bas.bg, +35929 606 127
Assoc. Prof. Denitsa Pantaleeva, PhD
deni@orgchm.bas.bg, +35929 606 106

Type of analysis:

  • measurement of Raman spectra using laser lines at 633 nm, 515 nm, 488 nm and 458 nm.
  • when measured under a microscope, the study area is several micrometers in size.
  • macro measurements of liquids in an optical cuvette and at different temperatures in the range (77 K – 600 oC).
  • measurement of emission and excitation spectra in the range 200-950 nm, fluorescence lifetime, quantum yield of solid and liquid samples.

Sample type:

Solid (poly- or monocrystalline).

Liquid or powdered samples; thin layers.

Synthetic, natural, mineral, inorganic and organic substances; all samples except metals and alloys.

Institute and contact person:

SU – FP

(Faculty of Physics)

Prof. Miroslav Abrashev, DSc
mvabr@phys.uni-sofia.bg
+35928 161 816, +35928 161 778
Prof. Viktor Ivanov, DSc
vgi@phys.uni-sofia.bg, +35928 161 778
Assist. Prof. Neno Todorov, PhD
neno@phys.uni-sofia.bg, +35928 161 778
IOMT – BAS Assist. Prof. Velichka Strizhova, PhD
vily@iomt.bas.bg, +35929 793 513

Type of analysis:

  • determination of the chemical composition in the surface layer of the sample (with a thickness of the order of 3-10 nm depending on the kinetic energy of the measured photoemitted electrons);
  • determination of the chemical state, oxidation state and concentration of the chemically different atoms in the surface layer

Sample type:

Solid samples.

Institute and contact person:

IGIC – BAS Assoc. Prof. Krasimir Kostov, PhD
klkostov@svr.igic.bas.bg, klkostov@gmail.com, +35929 792 536
IC – BAS Assoc. Prof. Hristo Kolev, PhD
hgkolev@ic.bas.bg, +35929 796 638

Type of analysis:

  • obtaining data on the qualitative and quantitative composition of the available iron-containing crystalline, low-crystalline and amorphous phases, as well as their degree of dispersion;
  • study of relaxation phenomena – superparamagnetism, collective magnetic excitation and electron exchange;
  • study of both the volume and the surface of the samples, as the parameters are influenced by the differences in the local environments of the iron ions.

Spectrum recording :

  • in transmission mode at different temperatures;
  • with detection of conversion electrons;
  • in situ transmission spectra in a reaction medium.

Sample type:

Solid samples.

Institute and contact person:

IC – BAS Assoc. Prof. Nikolai Velinov, PhD
nikivelinov@ic.bas.bg, +35929 792 593

Microscopic Methods

Type of analysis:

  • study of the surface morphology of solid samples of different types – metals and alloys, ceramics, polymers, biological samples;
  • examination of bulk materials and powders; determination of shape, size and particle size distribution in powders;
  • additional possibility for crystallographic analysis and determination of phase composition of the sample using transmission electron microscopy.

Sample type:

Solid phase samples, bulk materials or powders.

Limit for transmission electron microscopy samples: thickness – up to 500 nm for samples of organic origin and up to 70 nm for inorganic samples.

Institute and contact person:

SU – FCP Prof. Toni Spasov, DSc
tspassov@vhem.uni-sofia.bg
Assist. Prof. Stilyana Pereva, PhD
spereva@chem.uni-sofia.bg, +359883 452 330
Assist. Prof. Stanislava Todorova, PhD
stodorova@chem.uni-sofia.bg, +35928 161 346
IPC – BAS Luben Mihailov, PhD
nhtlm@mail.chem.uni-sofia.bg, +359888 960 858
Assoc. Prof. Bogdan Rangelov, PhD
rangelov@ipc.bas.bg, +35929 792 533, -3561
IOMT – BAS Assoc. Prof. Daniella Karashanova, PhD
adi@iomt.bas.bg, +35929 793 519

Type of analysis:

  • scanning of surfaces and obtaining topographic images in order to characterize the roughness;
  • obtaining phase images in order to characterize the physicochemical properties;
  • obtaining surface force maps for mechanical characterization of samples;
  • electric force microscopy (EFM), conducting force (c-AFM) microscopy, photoconducting (pc-AFM) microscopy, Kelvin probe microscopy (KPFM).

Sample type:

Solid samples.

Institute and contact person:

IOMT – BAS Assist. Prof. Velichka Strizhova-Kenderova, PhD
vily@iomt.bas.bg, +35929 793 513
IP – BAS Assist. Prof. Georgi Grancharov, PhD
granchar@polymer.bas.bg, +35929 796 319
UCTM – LAMAR Eng. Stefan Kozhuharov, PhD
stephko1980@abv.bg, stefko1980@abv.bg
SU – FCP Prof. Konstantin Balashev
fhkb@chem.uni-sofia.bg, +35928 161 259
Assist. Prof. Silvia Simeonova, PhD
ssimeonova@chem.uni-sofia.bg, +35928 161 341
Assist. Prof. Petar Georgiev, PhD
fhpg@chem.uni-sofia.bg, +35928 161 341

Type of analysis:

  • X-ray phase analysis, obtaining quantitative data, crystalite sizes, indexing of unknown phases;
  • point X-ray phase analysis;
  • X-ray phase analysis of monolithic samples up to 3 kg.
  • small angle diffraction analysis for the study of polymeric and mesoporous materials;
  • examination of thin films with GIXRD;
  • determination of residual stress in thin films and surfaces, texture studies;
  • high temperature X-ray diffraction analysis;
  • SAXS-analysis of the diffuse scattering for the study of nanomaterials.

Sample type:

Crystalline, organic and inorganic powders, incl. drugs, thin films for electronics and protective coatings, monolithic ceramic and metal samples, sol, gel, mesoporous and nanomaterials.

Institute and contact person:

IPC – BAS Assoc. Prof. Eng Georgi Avdeev, PhD
g_avdeev@ipc.bas.bg, 029792534, 029792507
IGIC – BAS Prof. Daniella Kovacheva
didka@svr.igic.bas.bg, 029792587
IP – BAS Assist. Prof. Phillip Ublekov, PhD
fublekov@polymer.bas.bg, 029793475

Type of analysis:

  • non-destructive volume imaging and determination of morphometric parameters (porosity, volume parts, specific surface, size distribution, anisotropy, etc.);
  • determination of total volumes, areas and sizes of the scanned object;
  • defectoscopy;
  • determination of bone density;
  • determination of density in the case of available calibration samples;
  • three-dimensional computer models of the scanned object;
  • optical resolution of 2-6 micrometers depending on the contrast (minimum pixel volume – 0.5 micrometers).

Sample type:

Sample size –  between 0.5 mm and 7 cm, to be able to undergo X-rays irradiation with an energy of up to 80 kV for several hours.

Institute and contact person:

IPC – BAS Assoc. Prof. Dragomir Tachev, PhD
dtachev@ipc.bas.bg, +35929 792 570

Thermal Methods

Type of analysis:

Differential thermal analysis of samples with the possibility of heating up to 1500oС and cooling up to -130оС with constant speed and keeping at constant temperature.

  • determination of melting, crystallization, vitrification temperatures;
  • determination of heats (enthalpies) of states and processes;
  • identification of low- and high-molecular organic and inorganic compounds;
  • thermogravimetric analysis up to 1500oС;
  • determination of thermal stability and mass loss as a function of temperature and time;
  • qualitative analysis of the emitted gases.

Sample type:

Solid (powders, granules, foils, fibers) and gel-like samples.

Institute and contact person:

IPC – BAS Prof. Alexander Karamanov

karama@ipc.bas.bg, +35929 792 552

IGIC – BAS Assoc. Prof. Diana Rabadzhieva, PhD
didiarab@svr.igic.bas.bg, +35929 793 554
Assist. Prof. Lubomir Aleksandrov, PhD
lubomir@svr.igic.bas.bg, +35929 793 901
IP – BAS Eng Pencho Tuleshkov, PhD
pen.tul@polymer.bas.bg, +35929 793 477

Electrochemical Methods

Type of analysis:

  • electrochemical synthesis of metal, alloy, conductive polymer and composite electrode coatings;
  • electrochemical and electrocatalytic activity of electrode materials;
  • electroanalytical measurements of bioactive substances, drugs and pollutants;
  • impedance measurements;
  • corrosion measurements;
  • chronoamperometry, potentiometry, voltammetry, polarization curves, pulse and differential pulse methods.

Sample type:

Solid surface sample.

Institute and contact person:

IPC – BAS Prof. Vessela Tsakova, DSc
tsakova@ipc.bas.bg +35929 792 557
Prof. Nikolay Bozhkov, PhD
NBoshkov@ipc.bas.bg, 029792521
IEES – BAS Assoc. Prof. Elefteria Lefterova, PhD
edl@iees.bas.bg  +35929 792 771, +35929 792 752
UCTM – LAMAR Eng Stefan Kozhuharov, PhD
stefko1980@abv.bg

Measuring of physical properties

Type of analysis:

  • measurement of the electrical conductivity according to the Hall method of solid materials between 100 and 600 K;
  • determination of the mobility and density of current carriers;
  • measurement of thermal conductivity of solid and powder materials at room temperature: calculation of diffusion, heat capacity, thermal resistance, depth of penetration.

Sample type:

Solids and powder materials in the form of tablets.

Institute and contact person:

IGIC – BAS Assist. Prof. Sonya Harizanova, PhD,
sonya@svr.igic.bas.bg, +35929 793 904

Type of analysis:

  • measurement of surface tension of liquids in the range 1 to 2000 mN/m;
  • determination of the wetting angle in the range 0 to 180°.

Sample type:

Liquids and solutions; materials and composites; tablets, biologically active substances, foils and films; textiles and fibrous materials.

Institute and contact person:

IPC – BAS Prof. Elena Mileva, DSc
mileva@ipc.bas.bg, +35929 792 583
IP – BAS Assoc. Prof. Olya Stoilova, PhD
stoilova@polymer.bas.bg, +35929 793 468
Assoc. Prof. Maria Spasova, PhD
mspasova@polymer.bas.bg, +35929 793 468
UCTM – LAMAR Eng. Stefan Kozhuharov, PhD
stefko1980@abv.bg

Type of analysis:

  • determination of particle size from 0.3 nm to 10 µm, measurement of Zeta potential in the temperature range from 0 to 120°C;
  • measuring average mass molar mass, hydrodynamic radius, inertial radius and second viral coefficient;
  • determination of diffusion coefficients, speed and relaxation time;
  • determination of the thickness and optical constants of thin layers and multilayer systems, of the interface area between layers in multilayer systems, temperature control up to + 600 ° C (possibility for measurement in environment other than the surrounding atmosphere);
  • obtaining three-dimensional image of the sample surface, determination of surface roughness and thickness of thin layers, measurement of reflection spectra.

Sample type:

Solid and powder samples, solutions, suspensions, thin layers, polymer solutions, colloidal systems, other complex structures.

Institute and contact person:

IOMT – BAS Assist. Prof. Petya Petrovа, PhD
petia@iomt.bas.bg, +35929 793 543
Assoc. Prof. Violeta Madzharova, PhD
vmadjarova@iomt.bas.bg, +35929 793 506
Assist. Prof. Velichka Strizhova-Kenderova, PhD
vily@iomt.bas.bg, +35929 793 513
IP – BAS Prof. Stanislav Rangelov, DSc
rangelov@polymer.bas.bg, +35929 792 293
Assoc. Prof. Emi Haladzhova, PhD
ehaladjova@polymer.bas.bg, +35929 793 973

Type of analysis:

  • automatic determination of specific surface of solid materials by gas adsorption:
  • adsorption measurements with N2, CO2, Ar;
  • determination of a BET specific surface;
  • complete isotherms;
  • determination of pore volume and average pore diameter;
  • size distribution of micro- and mesopores.

Sample type:

Powdered samples.

Institute and contact person:

IGIC – BAS Assoc. Prof. Ivanka Spasova, PhD
ispasova@svr.igic.bas.bg, +35929 793 566

Type of analysis:

  • determination of microhardness and nanohardness, resistance to plastic deformation, degree of elastic recovery, wear resistance;
  • determination of tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and modulus of deformation; maximum elongation at break; maximum voltage (force) at break;
  • measurement of basic rheological characteristics: dynamic viscosity, storage and loss modules, thixotropic effect, etc.

Sample type:

bulky materials and thin layers – hard and superhard, metals, glass, ceramics; polymer materials, nano-materials, nonwovens, gels, thin foils and films;

polymer solutions, dispersions, emulsions, pastes and gels.

Institute and contact person:

CLAP – BAS
IP – BAS
UCTM – LAMAR
Assoc. Prof. Lilyana Kolaklieva , PhD
ohmic@mbox.digsys.bg, +359893 611 033
Assoc. Prof. Maria Spasova, PhD
mspasova@polymer.bas.bg, +35929 793 468
Prof. Petar Petrov
ppetrov@polymer.bas.bg, +35929 796 335
Eng. Pencho Tuleshkov, PhD
pen.tul@polymer.bas.bg, +35929 793 477
Eng. Stefan Kozhuharov, PhD
stefko1980@abv.bg

Synthetic equipment

Method:

Cathodic arc evaporation and unbalanced magnetron sputtering

Type of coating:

  • monolayer, multilayer and gradient hard coatings of binary and ternary compounds of Cr, Ti, Zr, Al;
  • superhard nanocomposites of triple and quadruple compounds (AlSiN, TiAlSiN, CrAlSiN);
  • nanosized monolayer and multilayer, gradient and composite coatings of binary, triple and quadruple compounds of Cr, Ti, Al.

Sample type:

Steel, tungsten carbide, plastics, glass.

Institute and contact person:

CLAP – BAS Assoc. Prof. Lilyana Kolaklieva, PhD,
ohmic@mbox.digsys.bg, +359893 611 033